A Part of this material has been published by the author in Management Science Letters.

In setting personal goals, people usually evaluate their capabilities to check whether the goals are achievable or not (Atkinson, 1957; Eccless et al., 1983). In goal-directed behavior, in which people set goals and develop scenarios to achieve the goals based on, most of all, their capabilities. Self-efficacy is the individuals’ belief that they can handle a task and reach goals. It can be individual or collective in scope (Bandura, 1977).

Self-efficacy is developed based on past performance, vicarious experiences, social persuasion, and social comparison (Bandura, 1977; Schunk and DiBenedetto, 2016). In the education field, many researchers found that self-efficacy influences achievement, learning strategy, motivation, and self-regulation (Schunk and DiBenedetto, 2016), including in decision-making (Reed, Mikels, & Löckenhoff, 2012).

High self-efficacy people set up a higher goal and have more confidence in performing tasks to reach that goal. They perceived difficult tasks as a challenge instead of an obstacle or threat to be avoided (Bandura, 1977). Conversely, low-efficacy people view difficult tasks as obstacles or threats and focus on their deficiencies and look for reasons to get out instead of finding a way to cope with the difficulties. They have low motivation and a weak commitment to establish such a task (Schunk, 1991). Perceived-difficulty in performing tasks some time is used as a proxy of self-efficacy. The high perceived difficulty is in line with low self-efficacy belief, and low perceived difficulty task is the reflection of high self-efficacy belief (Kraft, Rise, Sutton, &Roysamb, 2005).

The measurement of self-efficacy is offered by many authors. In learning context, the author see the measurement offered by Pintrich et al. (1991), exhibited in the following table, is the most widely used.

Self-Efficacy Measurement in University Context
SE1 I believe I will receive an excellent grade from this university
SE2 I’m certain I can understand the most difficult material presented in this university
SE3 I’m confident I can understand the basic concepts taught in this university
SE4 I’m confident I can understand the most complex material presented by the instructor in this university
SE5 I’m confident that I can do an excellent job on the assignments and tests during my study in this university
SE6 I expect to do well in this university
SE7 I’m certain I can master the skills being taught in this university
SE8 Considering the difficulty of materials offered in this university, the teacher, and my skills, I think I will do well in this class.


Pintrich, P. R. (2000). The role of goal orientation in self-regulated learning. In Boekaerts, Pintrich, M.P.R., & Zeidner, M. (Eds.). Handbook of Self-Regulation (pp. 451–502). Cambridge, MA: Academic Press. Retrieved from, July 9, 2021.

Simamora, B. (2021). Modeling passionate decision. Management Science Letters, 11(1), 139–154.